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Calutron mass spectrometers were used for uranium enrichment at the Oak Ridge, Tennessee Y-12 plant established during World War II.
In 1989, half of the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Hans Dehmelt and Wolfgang Paul for the development of the ion trap technique in the 1950s and 1960s.
A mass spectroscope configuration was used in early instruments when it was desired that the effects of adjustments be quickly observed.
Once the instrument was properly adjusted, a photographic plate was inserted and exposed.
An extraction system removes ions from the sample, which are then targeted through the mass analyzer and into the detector.
These ions are then separated according to their mass-to-charge ratio, for example by accelerating them and subjecting them to an electric or magnetic field: ions of the same mass-to-charge ratio will undergo the same amount of deflection.Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions.The results are typically presented as a mass spectrum, a plot of intensity as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio.These spectra are used to determine the elemental or isotopic signature of a sample, the masses of particles and of molecules, and to elucidate the chemical identity or structure of molecules and other chemical compounds.In a typical MS procedure, a sample, which may be solid, liquid, or gaseous, is ionized, for example by bombarding it with electrons.
The detector measures the value of an indicator quantity and thus provides data for calculating the abundances of each ion present.